Restructuring Learning Spaces with Interactive Technology and Transformative Pedagogy – An Ethnographic Project on Liberation Education

Restructuring Learning Spaces with Interactive Technology and Transformative Pedagogy – An Ethnographic Project on Liberation Education

Roland Lucas

CUNY Graduate Center

Socio-Cultural Research


My ethnographic research explores ideas around the construction of culturally empowering learning spaces that mitigate constraining structures in public education, erected in large part by the motive force of racism. I am interested in how advanced collaborative technologies can be deployed to facilitate the construction of these learning spaces, and accomplish the transformation of said constraining structures. In other words I’m interested in developing a culture of liberation education in urban schools, using interactive technologies as one resource to facilitate this agentic activity. My premise is that public schools have embedded in them continuously reproduced thick structures that severely constrain the life learning opportunities of African American students as well as other minority groups.

One theoretical underpinning useful for conceptualizing the possibilities of significantly transforming urban education is Bakhtin’s ideas on dialogical discourse and “ideological becoming”. I use this lens to envision processes of positive identity cultivation, through collaborative discourses and knowledge construction that can take place in culturally empowering learning spaces. I also borrow heavily from Bourdieu, Tobin, and Turner, for their theories and concepts of cultural structures and social transformation. Any project addressing the transformation of educational praxis must be grounded in a socio-cultural theory of action that accounts for the structures of the school environment as being embedded in larger cultural structures, the motives of the groups involved, and dynamics of social change.

Relations between Culture, Education and Social Transformation

In assessing public school policy and praxis, one must first place the school in the context of the wider socio-cultural field that it is situated in. Learning activity in any school setting are mediated by the macro and meso structures that schools are situated in. Schools are primary sites for the reproduction of the larger cultural values and motives, which often have much to do with reinforcing a stratified class and racial system of relations. It almost goes without saying that these macro and meso structures will deeply shape the educational practices, experiences, and outcomes that occur.

Bourdieu (2000) intimates in his works that schools are sites where the reproduction of the structure of power relationships between classes occurs. This happens through the mechanisms of distribution of cultural capital. Implicating education systems as such, Bourdieu says, “this means that our object becomes the production of the habitus, that system of dispositions which acts as a mediation between structures and practice; more specifically, it becomes necessary to study the laws that determine the tendency of structures to reproduce themselves by producing agents endowed with the system of predispositions which is capable of engendering practices adapted to the structures and thereby contributing to the reproduction of the structures.”


One idea embedded within this statement is that actions by actors are tied up with an engagement of structures (“engendering practices”), which can lead to a reproduction of existing structures. This suggests to me that there must also be other side to the coin, that agents can engage structures in a way so as not to reproduce them, but rather transform them according to their own goals. It is this prospect that I consider in a project to use technology resources to support a higher ordered educational praxis for African American youth in public schools.

It is commonplace for those who benefit within a society where the distribution of resources is stratified along racial and class categories, to deny the reality that racism and classism still deeply impinge on the learning outcomes and potential of minority students in public education. This denial serves the purpose of maintaining these limiting structures and shielding their macro and meso level transformation. Bell Hooks, in her book “Teaching to Transgress”, references the need to transform educational institutions into sites of liberation …

“If we examine the traditional role of the university in the pursuit of truth and the sharing of knowledge and information, (Resources), it is painfully clear that biases that uphold and maintain white supremacy, imperialism, sexism and racism have distorted education so that it is no longer about the practice of freedom. …The call for a recognition of cultural diversity, a rethinking of ways of knowing, a deconstruction of old epistemologies, and the concomitant demand that there be a transformation in our classrooms, in how we teach and what we teach, has been a necessary revolution – one that seeks to restore life to a corrupt and dying academy. Hooks, B. (1994).

Racism is not the only force to be reckoned with. Classism, excessive capitalism expressed through globalization and manifesting structurally in local schools, is also a force in need of transformation. Ken Tobin in his paper, “Global Reproduction and Transformation of Science Education”, also makes the link of macro level structures impinging on the local school structures and limiting the educational outcomes / potential of minority students.

“The Neoliberal demand expressed through Globalization and reaching down to the public school system, tends to define education for mostly African American and Latino students in such narrow terms that are not in my view compatible with their overarching goals of becoming independently successful by their own definitions.” (Tobin, K. 2009)


Tobin asks, “How should access and appropriation of resources be included in a theory of freedom in science (any) education?” Tobin (2010). I extend this same question here by asking, how can technology resources be accessed and appropriated in culturally empowering ways to support freedom in education for African American and other minority groups of students? I propose that collaborative spaces using interactive technologies can enhance learning for minority students, if constructed in culturally empowering ways that take up the challenge of developing positive student identities as agents for personal and collective uplift.

Bakhtin’s Dialogical Discourse and Identity Development

Agency involves an actor using available tools, structures or resources to carry out actions to obtain a goal. My unit of analysis is not the agency of African American students as individuals or even as a group onto themselves. Too often this kind of focus produces deficit theories, finding the problem of under achievement by African American students in their own bodies, minds and ethnic culture. It is not the African American student in isolation, even connected to advanced tutorial software applications that I consider. I consider activities of groups of students in collaboration through interactive technologies for the purpose of increasing their agency to offset much of the limiting structures of racism and classism as manifested in their local communities. I consider how through their collective activities they can proactively solve problems that are relevant to their group and to their communities. I consider how having access to timely, relevant, and up-to-date knowledge capital and processes afforded by interactive technologies can serve as vital resources to accomplish this.

Furthermore, collaborations in online learning spaces involving a community of students tend to make the construction of knowledge less centered on the teacher, and less an exercise of reproducing established knowledge and power structures. That is, knowledge production in interactive environments would be less authoritative, monological and passive as Bakhtin (1986, 2004) describes it. They would rather be more in keeping with Bakhtin’s concept of inner persuasive discourse where participants actively scrutinize, challenge, change, reject and argue over, existing knowledge to suit their needs and evolving understandings. Multiple “utterances” or dialogues are then considered, synthesized or otherwise reshaped as needed. New products that students appropriate and generate can be acted upon to support their agency and identity formation. Existing knowledge and relational structures will be reproduced only if they support the motives of the collective. If not, these structures will be targeted for transformation, thus providing for agency and liberating education.

Students will no longer fall into serving the intentions of dominant groups, nor channel the words, ideologies, goals, and problems of dominant groups. Students become critical thinkers, not just in their ability to analyze data and problems, but to do so in relation to their uplift and that of their communities. Without this critical facility, they would simply implicate themselves in sustaining the reproduction of their own subordination in society through a mis-educational system. They would “recite by heart” other people’s voices or structural rules. They would, in the Bakhtin sense, parrot authoritative discourses, rather than retell their stories in their own words. Learning to privilege one’s own critical voice is what Bakhtin (1981), refers to as “ideologically becoming”. This is education proper and is sorely lacking in public schools where African American students predominate. A culturally empowering learning space would encourage this kind of critical thinking and development of “voice” or ideological self through the process of sharing with and building upon ideas of others having liberating motives in a collaborative space.

Educational Transformation, From Meso to Maco Structures

Turner (2007) expresses a concept of social change through emotionally charged act emanating from the micro level of the human encounter, and cascading through meso and macro structures … “emotional arousal at the level of iterated encounters spreads through networks of meso structures, changing key corporate and categoric units or perhaps creating new meso-level structures, that change macro level structures. … For most encounters however, the culture of meso-structures is reinforced and reproduced which in turn, sustains culture at the macro level of social organization.”

I believe that the enactment of transformative education through the construction of culturally empowering learning spaces locally, can have a cascading and enduring transformative impact on how education is practiced on macro and even global levels, in public education. Turner’s cultural theory helps to conceptualize how such a transformation of educational practice can be initiated from local levels to meso and macro levels. It is my hope that such a model project of creating culturally empowering learning spaces, and the accumulated knowledge capital that it produces, will touch off cascading series of meaningful events that will durably transform educational practices.

The CHAT, cultural historical activity theory, also has promise in conceptualizing transformative, agentic educational practice that can further the educational goals of the African American collective. The unit of analysis of this theory reaches beyond the individual personal activity and subjective reality, in isolation from the context of the wider fields of social interaction. According to this cultural theory, individual activity, including learning in the classroom, is in symbiotic or dialectic relation with the wider community within which individual activity is embedded. “CHAT leads to changes in the location of representing what is educationally relevant: Its inherently dialectical unit of analysis allows for an embodied mind, itself an aspect of the material world, stretching across social and material environments”. Hence, individual learning goals, must be considered in context of the wider goals of the community within which the individual is situated. This is precisely the thrust of my research project. I see collaborative technologies as tools that enhance the agentic activity of individual | collective African American student achievement. They can facilitate knowledge construction in iterative and accumulating developments, not unlike the multiplier effect of money in a closed economic system, thereby magnifying the capital wealth (knowledge capital) of the entire community.

Research Questions and Authenticity Checks

My aim is to create and study culturally empowering learning spaces where students, can leverage interactive technologies to enhance learning on the behalf of students, particularly African American students, their communities, and society at large. I generally judge the merit and benefit of this study based on how well I can synthesize answers to the essential questions posed in this study for myself for one. Then the data, analyses and insights produced through the study must position participants and stakeholders to answer these questions for themselves. My overarching rational for these questions is that student achievement must be assessed in relation to their developing identity, critical sense, knowledge construction towards self-relevant problems, and developing agency to achieve individual and community goals. A synthesis of ideas from the various cultural theories mentioned will hopefully afford a deep understanding of the processes of meaning making, and growing agency of participants to appropriate resources (including interactive technologies) that will advance their individual and group goals. The below is a restatement of the essential questions that I hope to answer through this study, along with their corresponding authenticity and validity checks.

1) How, if at all, do these student’s discourses and authored products express the development of their ideological self, privileging their own “voices”; meaning their own ideas of what learning activities will benefit themselves and their community. This question is meant to ascertain if students feel free to counter ideologies and structures that impinge on their agency in education. Data that will answer these questions are: synchronous and asynchronous dialogue, student journals, blogs, individual and group interviews, authored products, as in essays and Power Point presentations. So the first authenticity check for this study is that students will experience an expansion of their own “voice” to express what knowledges and activities are beneficial for themselves. They will be less likely to accept and follow uncritically, ideas and practices that do not serve their own defined criterion for what benefits their self-defined goals. If most students on the other hand consistently express the sentiment that they feel imposed upon by using say Moodle (a course content management system), or by being encouraged to focus on community problems, saying that these encumber their ability to effectively perform the tasks necessary address the learning objectives of the course, then this would indicate a need to reevaluate the effectiveness of the project.

2) How, if at all, do these students’ discourses and authored products express development of their affective identities as competent actors in their semiotic domain? This question builds on the first and tracks the students’ agency to proactively appropriate resources as needed to accomplish their individual goals. Data that will answer these questions are: authored products as in concept models, discourses, topic selections, all produced over time and demonstrating the application of concepts learned towards problems relevant to the participants and their communities. The second authenticity check then for this study is, students will increasingly identify their constructed knowledges and activities as having benefit to not only themselves, but also to their communities. Local stakeholders in the school and community will likewise identify the collective praxis of participants as establishing an educational paradigm that actually supports educational objectives aligned to the enduring best interests of students. If on the other hand most students and other stakeholders, over the span of the course, consistently express that they don’t see their body of work as having relevancy to their community, but rather express that this work actually reduces the relevancy of what they produce to the needs of their community, then that is an indication that the benefit of this project must be reevaluated.

3) How, if at all, do these students’ discourses and authored products express that they identify their problem solving activities and goals as advancing the motives of their group and larger community? This question examines if students associate their individual agency with the goals of their wider group, family, and community. Data that will answer these questions are authored products that result from their activity in projects; extended school activities such as community service co-op courses, mentorship programs, all manner or social activism. A third authenticity check then for this study is that students constructed knowledges and activities actually serve to transform existing educational practice on not only local levels, such as classroom and school, but also on, meso levels such as district and region. The established praxis captured by this study would further serve as a model for transformative education on macro levels, as in urban education for minorities across districts, states and throughout the entire country. If this transformation does not occur after implementation across departments in a given school for at least three years, despite being fully resourced materially and with teachers with supportive ideological perspectives, then the project must be reevaluated as to its benefit to students.

Ethnography in my high school math classes

During the course of the second half of the current school year I’ve engaged students in projects that I hope will develop their identification of themselves as doers of mathematics not just for their own benefit, but to the greater good of the community from which they come. This is in keeping with the unit of analysis that I mentioned already. It is not the student’s activities in isolation, even if it involves advanced technologies. Rather, I consider activities of groups of students in collaboration through interactive technologies for the purpose of increasing their collective agency for the uplift of them selves and of their communities. This goal was reflected in the project requirements in one way or another, as I attempted to develop this collective identify of my high school math students. For example, listed below were the requirements of the first project.

“1) Analyze and model a problem that relates to your community. The problem should directly impact your community in some important way. The key word here is “relevant” to your community’s uplift.

2) Work in teams of two.

3) The problem can be modeled using a mathematical function (linear, exponential, quadratic etc.

4) There is data that can be collected or otherwise retrieved that reflects the development of the scenario you are modeling.

5) You are able to dialogue about the problem with members of your family, community and your teachers.

6) You must be able to record in writing the perspectives of these people on your problem. At least 3 different people from your community, one being a family member, others can be your teammate or a teacher from another discipline (not math).

7) You must ask the same three people to give their perspectives prior to you developing your math model and after you developed your math model

8) Suggested questions to ask your participants:

a. How do you see this problem affecting your community?

b. What kind of math information and/or modeling would help you to understand the problem and its possible solution better?

c. How do you think my proposed model can help your understand the problem and solution better?

9) All dialogue must be captured in a Moodle forum. If you record a conversation, you must transcribe it in written form into the Moodle forum.

10) Your math model should reflect the input of your participants in a significant way. “


The requirements for two other projects had a similar emphasis on solving a problem that was relevant to the community the student came from, and on using interactive technologies to provide a multiplier effect of knowledge capital; meaning that students accrued knowledge by sharing learned artifacts with each other, building on previous works, accessing online resources and obtaining my input, all done in multiple iterations until it was time for them to engage stakeholders with their products.

With my overarching project in mind, I was always on the lookout for student expressions that would evidence their developing agency to solve problems of their communities. I have not yet asked students to answer survey questions to elicit this evidence. Instead I have asked open-ended questions regarding their experience of doing this project and on their understanding of what a problem solver is. Before the school year ends I think it will be valuable to ask more focused questions that may help gage their identification with being a problem solver on the behalf of their community. Below are places where I’ve considered looking for this evidence:

1)    The selection of the problem students chose to address

2)    Some of the insider language that indicates identification with the problem. For example, terms such as “my problem” or “my community” may indicate this identification.

3)    The answers to my posed question “what is a problem solver” may be revealing. One student answered as follows to the question of what was his experience with doing this project:

“I think this project was good in helping us recognize some of the problems existing in our community but it wasn’t really enforceful, I don’t think it had a very powerful effect on me. I felt that this project was just a brush up on my presentation skills, but yea it was an ok experience”

This indicates to me that the goal of helping him to become aware of the problems was achieved. He was looking for a more “powerful effect”. Though at first glance this may seem to be a negative evaluation, it could also indicate that he is ready to go beyond the awareness phase to a phase where he is actually making a difference with his research. He use the term “enforceful” which could be read as “full of force” to make a difference in the problem area. Another student wrote the following in response to the question of what is a problem solver:

“A problem solver is someone or something that solves problems by making it easier or coming up with more than one solution. In math, a problem solver can be a calculator or a formula that helps solve an equation. In life a problem solver is someone who helps others with their issues, for example, a therapist or a complete stranger can be a problem solver.


I took particular note of her saying “In life a problem solver is someone who helps others with their issues”. This is an indication that the student understands that problem solving has importance in relations to others, which for me indicates a development of collective identity formation.

4) The effort students make to surround the Power Point slides with meaningful pictures and self-placed captions is a good source of evidence. Looking at the pictures the student selected to surround the information in the slides one can surmise that this student has formed a definite ideological opinion on the community problem and endorses active involvement by sympathetic listeners to help with this problem. For example, the selection of the below pictures in a Power Point on the community problem of abortion evidences the formation of a definite ideological opinion. Generally I think these power points evidence the development of ideological identities in students as agents for their communities.


5) The spontaneous dialogue students engaged in while presenting is another important signifier of identification with community. There was not much of this dialogue in the first two projects. I think the reason for this is students went into the project thinking that they would just give a presentation. In some cases however, students spontaneously engaged each other is dialogue about the problem. I made a conscious effort not to interject my own ideas and comments while students were presenting so that I would minimize my influence over students ideas. Towards the end of the presentations I decided to participate more my asking students questions and encouraging them to ask each other questions. I think entrained or focused dialogue among students is evidence of identification with being problem solvers on the behalf of their communities. Recognizing this, I decided for the next project to allow students to be teachers of problems they selected, not merely presenters. I will then see if there is more of this interested dialogue that evidences identification with problem solving on behalf of their communities.

6) During presentations, students seemed very interested to express the opinions of their “community members” on the problem they presented. At this point I can only speculate why this may be so. I will venture to say that it may be because students feel it adds an authentic voice about the problem, which infuses a greater relevancy of the problem to the student.

7) When I asked students, subsequent to their previous projects, to modify an exiting problem in some significant way, I had in mind to see if their modifications reflect in any way an attempt to address problems they saw in their communities. If this is the case, then this would also be evidence of a growing identification with community problems.

8) The eagerness of a few students to showcase their work by doctoring up a bulletin board outside of the classroom for the whole school to see is an important indication of student identification. See attached photo of bulletin board done by two students.

9) Another source for the evidence I seek can be the portfolios that students were asked to complete for the 3rd marking period. With the portfolio I asked students to focus not on collecting their body of work, but rather to comment on the work that they did and their level of acquired understandings. I think that this product can be revealing as to how students value the project work that we did in comparison to the other types of math work, and if they found it more relevant to their developing competencies as problem solvers on the behalf of their communities. Here is an excerpt from the portfolio introduction done by a pre-calculus student:

“However, after the HSPA we moved onto better things like matrices. Not only did we learn how to plug matrices into a calculator, we learned how to create our own problems in Excel. We also learned about synthetic and long division with polynomials. It was very fun. Now we are working on a group project dealing with any community problem of our choice. We have to model the problem with ‘dummy data’ and then get real data that shows the function of our problem.”

One can surmise from this statement that this student gives a positive valuation (“we moved onto better things“) of the group project dealing with a community problem.

Coding for positive evaluations with respect to my goal would need to take place over all the types of products that were collected with these projects, before a definite conclusion can be supported. At this preliminary stage of analysis I can only point to the kinds of student expressions that evidence a developing ideological stance and identity as a problem solver on behalf of student communities. It is the sum total of the above evidences that may support the claim that students involved with these projects in my math classes have developed an increased identification of themselves as problem solvers on the behalf of their communities. Of course an ultimate indicator of this would be to find that these students have engaged in agentic activities after the course that further the uplift of their communities. Focused interviews with these activists student may reveal that they attribute their activism, at least in part, to their experiences in my math class.

10) Another means to support claims that students in urban classrooms are developing positive identity as doers of math on behalf of their communities is to gage the level of synchrony and entrainment amongst students and teachers in the classroom in the sense given by Randall Collins in his book, Interaction Ritual Chains (2004):

“As persons the person become more tightly focused on their common activity, more aware of what each other is doing, and feeling, and more aware of each other’s awareness, they experience their shared emotion intensely, as it comes to dominate their awareness”. This solidarity on a sustained and continuous level, towards a common goal of community uplift is what I hope to engender in my students.

Ken Tobin has done extensive work in this area of microanalysis of synchrony in the classroom and has demonstrated its usefulness.

“We show that specific prosodic features in face-to-face encounters—alignment and misalignment—are associated with the production of solidarity and conflict, which in turn are associated with successful and unsuccessful lessons. They are also associated with different degrees of solidarity and emotional energy that participants in science classrooms experienced.” Roth & Tobin (2010)


Micro level data, as in video taping of students as they are engaged in the type of collaborative project work that involves community, can be coded for prosody, entrainment or sustained focus, and synchrony. This data can be compared to the same type of micro level data of students engaged in typical teacher centered lessons. Though I have not carried out this micro level analysis and comparison with my students, I have notice higher levels of student engagement, entrainment, and synchrony when students were allowed to author their own math products and were free to present them in the role of class teacher. I would not want to overstate what this micro level analysis can reveal in terms of identity formation. I think that looking at micro level data in isolation from wider cultural structures that students are embedded in, can lead to misinterpretation of events. For instance simple smiles my students in and of themselves can be interpreted as positive emotional engagement, but can actually be an expressions of subversion or carnival (in the Bakhtinian sense) to a teacher’s practice. However this is true for all of the forms of evidence that I have listed thus far. It is only when one form of evidence is held together with all of the other student produced cultural artifacts that we can gain higher confidence levels that this collaborative, student centered approach cultivates in students a positive identity formations as doers of math on the behalf of their communities. Having stated this caution, it is my experience that the levels of solidarity are markedly higher when students are given freedom to work on problems that are relevant to their communities, and allowed to present them, without undue teacher interventions, to their classmates and other stakeholders. This may also translate into higher levels of student achievement in math and science, as well as entry into these professions.

Where does this lead? I think this can lead to a feedback loop of cultural capital forming a habitus, or educational praxis that support not just individual positive affective identity formation, but positive collective group identity formation, that can be the basis for transforming dominant structures that have to this day, thwarted the educational aspirations of African American students. I refer again to Turner for aid conceptualizing prospects for transformative agentic action, as the outcome of positive affective identity formation of participants in my project: “the flow of positive sanctions in an encounter tends to circulate among the participants to the encounter, with individuals mutually sanctioning each other in ways that build up local solidarities, although at times this flow of mutual positive sanctioning can work its way up to mesostructures and macrostructures.” Turner (2007). This reminds me again of the multiplier effect of circulating money in a closed system repeatedly before allowing it to leave the system, as a means of accruing wealth exponentially. This then provides a cultural capital accumulation that may reach a critical mass, allowing for transformation structures in the educational arena. The goal of this project is no less than such a transformation of mesostructures and macrostructures that tend to constrain the educational and life possibilities of African American students.

Contradictions an Opportunity for Further Revelations

One contradiction that often presents itself is that students often times bit the proverbial hand that tries to feed them. For example, after coaxing my students to the first “community problem”, in my math class, when presented with an opportunity to do another, many simply chose to work on more simplistic problems that don’t seem to relate to the serious issues of their community. Some topics chosen were, quadratic functions as they relate to catapults, tossing a softball, kit tails, and kicking a soccer ball. I was initially disappointed with these selections, thinking that my efforts to scaffold them into these important roles and identities as problems solvers for their community, has not born much fruit. However, upon deeper reflection, I must allow for room for young students to get comfortable with their identities through play. Is it not the case that most mature identities start off from baby steps in play and less risky identities? There has to be room for development. It would be unrealistic to expect students to be prepared to go out and become activists as a consequence of doing three projects. Indeed it would be unrealistic to think that many students will be activists at all. The ways students will express their developing identities as doers of math for community uplift will be diverse and stratified across multiple fields of activity. No doubt many students have been conditioned to dislike math. Many are just eager to satisfy their high school math requirements and never take math again unless to meet minimum requirements for college or a job. These are all negative dispositions that must be contended with. For such a student the challenge is to help them rediscover math in the context of empowering them to analyze and contribute to solutions of real-life problems in their communities.

Collaborative Technologies Resourcing Educational Transformation

What becomes essential in the deployment of interactive technologies is not the technology itself, but the meaning making, liberating ideologies, and problem solving that are all directly relevant to the participants acting to their own benefit and that of the wider collective from which they come. New forms of computer models coupled with increasing ease and power of modifying and sharing these models without regard for distance or time, makes possible a broader, more powerful repertoire of pedagogical strategies that can be pressed into service to accomplish common goals of the collective.

Culturally empowering learning spaces that utilize advanced interactive technologies, coupled with liberating ideologies embedded in the curriculum, have the potential of producing educational experiences for African American students in public schools that are transformative of existing constraining structures in public schools, affording agency for both individuals and collectives. These spaces are not isolated enclaves that locate the problems facing African American students in the bodies of the students or in their ethnic practices. Rather, there is a recognition that agency of students is interlinked with how students and stakeholders access and manage available resources to construct meaning and knowledge that can be applied to their collective problems and motives. These learning spaces can serve as models for a public education generally, for not only minority students, but for all students. So these learning spaces in particular localities can have a transformative effect on meso and macro level structures of education and society as a whole.




Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M. M. Bakhtin (C. Emerson, & M. Holquist, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays (V. W. McGee, Trans. Vol. 9). Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bourdieu, P. (2000). Cultural reproduction and social reproduction. In R. Arum & R. Beattie (Eds.), The structure of schooling: Readings in the sociology of education (pp. 56-68). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.

Collins, R. (2004). Interaction ritual chains. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hooks, B. (1994). Teaching to transgress. Education as the practice of freedom (p29). New York and London: Routledge.

Turner K. (2007). Human emotions. A sociological theory (p73). New York and London: Wolff-Michael Roth and Yew-Jin Lee. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 77, No. 2 pp. 186-232

Tobin, K. (2010). Global reproduction and transformation of science education. Cult Stud of Sci Educ DOI 10.1007/s11422-010-9293

Wolff-Michael Roth and Yew-Jin Lee (Jun., 2007). “Vygotsky’s Neglected Legacy”: Cultural-Historical Activity Theory. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 77, No. 2 pp. 186-232


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